Amyloidosis is a rare disease causes due to building up of amyloid an abnormal protein which usually gets produced in bone marrow and deposits in any tissue or organ. According to The Amyloidosis Foundtion, in the U.S. amyloidosis is the most common type, with approximately 4,500 new cases diagnosed every year. It usually affects people from age group 50-80; however, there are a few cases of people being diagnosed as early as their late 20s and overall incidence statistics suggest that two-thirds of the patients are male. Blood and urine tests are carried out initially to diagnose Amyloidosis followed by echocardiogram and imaging, tissue biopsy, bone marrow aspirate and biopsy, and organ biopsy. The market experts suggest that, currently there are no treatments available that can directly remove the amyloid deposits associated with amyloidosis. Treatment regime assigned for amyloidosis aims to prevent the further production of abnormal light chains while monitoring and treating any problems affecting the organs. There are several types of amyloidosis such as AL (Amyloid Light Chain), AA (Amyloid Serum A Protein), Hereditary (ATTR and Non-ATTR, TTR-Transthyretin Protein), Wild-Type ATTR, and others (Leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 [LECT2], Beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis [AB2M]).
Supportive care and type-specific treatment are the two treatment types practiced by medical practitioners. Supportive care treatment focuses on affected organs such as kidney, heart, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and peripheral nerves. Nephrotic syndrome and cardiomyopathy is treated with salt and fluid retention accompanied with loop diuretics to restrict the ongoing protein loss. Kidney or heart transplantation is considered as a preferred option when the disease is controlled at a specific level. Medical experts suggest that, to prevent recurrence in transplanted heart, patients should be treated with aggressive antiplasma cell therapy with melphalan IV followed by autologus stem cell transplant. GI tract might develop diarrhea which is controlled with the help of loperamide and early satiety and gastric retention is treated with metoclopramide. Peripheral neuropathy is treated with gabapentin or pregablin to relieve pain.
Chemotherapy is most preferred option to treat amyloidosis with drugs such as cyclophosphamide and melphalan combined with dexamethasone and prednisolone. The new drugs that are evaluated for treatment of amyloidosis are bortezomib, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide. Organ transplantations are carried out for liver, kidney, and heart but its not appropriate for all patients especially in patients having late amount of amyloid deposition in organs. Dietary therapy is also used to reduce the amyloid deposition in specific part of the body i.e. if amyloidosis affects heart or kidneys low-sodium diet is recommended. In a few cases stem cell transplantations or bone marrow transplant is also considered as a beneficial option, this type of stem cell transplantation is known as peripheral blood stem cell transplant.
North America was observed as the largest market for amyloidosis therapeutic treatment followed by Europe. In North America, rising awareness associated with early disease diagnosis, and availability of accessible and developed healthcare infrastructure. The epidemiology statistics suggests that, primary systemic amyloidosis mainly occurs in around 8 per million people per year, which comes to approximately 3,000 new patients annually in the U.S. In the UK, the age-specific incidence rate is between 5.1 and 12.8 per million per year, with around 60 new cases annually.
The global amyloidosis therapeutic treatment market is segmented on the following bases:
Key Players Identified for Amyloidosis Therapeutic Treatment Market Include but are Not Limited to:
The key players in the market are Pfizer Inc., Bellus Health Inc., Astra Zeneca plc, Merck & Co., GlaxoSmithKline, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd., Apotex, Inc., Celgene Corporation, Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Prothena Corporation plc, Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and others
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