Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) Market By Fuel Type (High Grade, Low Grade) By Application (Cement Kilns, Coal Power Plant, Combined Heat & Power Plant, Others) - Growth, Future Prospects & Competitive Analysis, 2016 - 2028

About this report

The global refuse-derived fuel (RDF) market report explores the critical analysis of the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) industry using key parameters. The report includes investment strategies, the need for investments in the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) industry, and the numerous advantages for investors. Importantly, this report outlines significant changes in global technical regulations for the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) industry and how economic and non-economic barriers assist market growth. In addition, the report analyzes historical and projected market sizes at the global, regional, and national levels. The report also thoroughly examines key investment propositions, demand and supply gaps, competitor positioning, SRC analysis, STAR analysis, and Tornado analysis. Other analyses and key technological developments include PESTEL analysis, Porter's five forces analysis, value chain analysis, etc.



Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) Market by Volume


Market by Value


Market, Tornado Analysis


Market, STAR Analysis


Market, SRC Analysis


Market, Import-Export Data

Yes (On Demand)

Market Pricing Analysis

Yes (On Demand)

Market Segment Analysis

By Fuel Type (High Grade and Low Grade)

By Application (Cement Kilns, Coal Power Plant, Combined Heat & Power Plant, and Others)

Market, Regional Analysis

North America (the US and Canada)

Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Spain, and the Rest of Europe)

Asia Pacific (China, India, Japan, South Korea, South East Asia, and the Rest of Asia Pacific)

Latin America (Brazil, Mexico, and the Rest of Latin America)

Middle East and Africa (GCC Countries, South Africa, and the Rest of the Middle East and Africa)

Market Key Companies

Tana Oy, ITR Recycling Technologies, Andritz AG, Istac Inc, Ecocycle (Group) Ltd, Aguas de Portugal, Camec, Organic Resource Agency Ltd, RCP SA

Market Competitive Landscape

Market Share Analysis

Competitive Benchmarking

Key Players Market Positioning

Geographical Presence Analysis

Major Strategies Adopted


Key Highlights of the Report

How are the major segments performing in the recycle-derived fuel (RDF) market?

  • The high-grade fuel type segment dominated the global market in 2021. Higher-grade RDF can consist of plastic bottles, cardboard, wood chips, and paper goods and has an energy content per kilogram greater than or equal to ten megajoules.High-grade refuse-derived fuels are mostly used in cement plants, where temperatures can be tolerated at lower levels than in coal-fired power plants.
  • The cement kiln application segment dominates the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) market. In cement plants, refuse-derived fuel is mixed in various ratios with petroleum coke for cement production. Emission levels were one of the most important factors in approving the use of refuse-derived fuel in cement plants. As a result of refuse-derived fuel's success in satisfying the eligibility requirements, the cement industry adopted it, enabling both the municipal and cement sectors to experience economic and environmental benefits.

Which region dominated the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) market?

In 2021, Europe dominated the global refuse-derived fuel (RDF) market. In Europe, waste-derived fuel generates heat and electricity, adding to the European Union's established hierarchy. Implementing quality management plans in municipal solid waste treatment and fuel production, as well as recent technological developments in the processes used to produce fuel, have increased public acceptance and encouraged efficient resource utilization in European industries. The growing awareness among industries to use environmentally friendly fuels has increased regional demand for refuse-derived fuel.

How is the US market performing in the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) market?

The United States has the largest market share of North American refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Standardized standards, the use of certificates, the public's preference for waste-derived fuels, and other factors contribute to the country's increased demand. The U.S. established numerous combined heat & power plants, supporting market growth due to the numerous advantages of using refuse-derived fuel and as the general public believes in using eco-friendly fuels and maintaining a clean environment. Uses for cement kilns primarily drive the demand for these products in the country, and this trend is anticipated to continue through the end of the forecast period.

What is the competitive environment of the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) market?

The global refuse-derived fuel market is characterized by fierce competition and numerous profitable growth opportunities. The major players in refuse-derived fuel (RDF) are concentrating their efforts on developing new products to broaden their product portfolio. For instance, in April 2018, Metso, a producer of RDF, introduced the M&J FineShred 1550, a fine-shredder that uses less heat and power, is safe, convenient to access, and easy to maintain during production. Due to these technological developments, manufacturers are anticipated to increase their market share and fuel the global market expansion over the forecast period.

Executive Summary

What are all the technical developments in the global refuse-derived fuel (RDF) market?

Several global corporations have developed technologies that, to varying degrees, pre-process solid waste to separate non-combustibles from the waste stream. Waste generation from various municipal, industrial, and residential sectors is a critical factor impeding sustainable development. The numerous greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated from waste are well-known as significant global GHG emissions sources. As energy waste is a potential technology to lower these GHG emissions, waste production can act as a significant opportunity to achieve a future of sustainable development. Waste-to-energy conversion is a newer form of waste treatment that can generate electricity using various technologies. For example, Andritz AG provides modern and efficient refuse-derived fuel (RDF) processing technologies.


Which are the key market investments by the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) players?

Leading RDF market vendors have prepared investments to boost fuel production in response to the escalating demand for their products. The top producers of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) are investing in expanding their production capabilities in response to the rising demand. Many other significant market participants concentrate on strengthening their regional presence through acquisitions or branding agreements. For instance, Geminor signed a three-year agreement with Finnsementti in January 2022 to supply sustainable SRF to Finland. The collaboration includes SRF supply, waste fuel handling, and transportation to the cement plant in Parainen.

Some major players in the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) market are Tana Oy, ITR Recycling Technologies, Andritz AG, Istac Inc., Ecocycle (Group) Ltd., Aguas de Portugal, Camec, Organic Resource Agency Ltd., and RCP SA.

What are the major driving factors for the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) market?

Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is made from solid municipal, commercial, and industrial waste. RDF production can reduce the potential for methane emissions in the atmosphere while relieving landfill pressure. Growing demand for RDF in waste-to-energy activities for electricity generation is expected to drive global market growth during the forecast period. A further factor that is anticipated to boost the market for refuse-derived fuel growth during the projected period is the implementation of strict environmental regulations that prioritize the optimization of reducing non-renewable energy resources. The market's expansion has also been significantly fueled by the use of RDF by different industry verticals to reduce CO2 emissions.

What are the Major Risks for the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) market?

The high costs of fuel processing will limit the growth of the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) market over the forecast period. There are obstacles to producing refuse-derived fuel (RDF), such as the high startup costs for pre-processing facilities and the higher price of collecting, sorting, and transporting waste products. In addition to cost, technical obstacles like poor solid waste quality and high moisture levels lead to the degradation of RDF's quality and negatively impact its production rate.

Which is the key type of fuel in the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) market?

In 2021, the high-grade fuel type segment held the largest market share. Higher-grade RDF can be composed of plastic bottles, cardboard, wood chips, and paper goods and has an energy content per kilogram greater than or equal to ten megajoules. This waste-derived fuel is primarily used to generate electricity, combined heat and power (CHP), lime at high temperatures, and cement at high temperatures in coal-fired power plants. This fuel reduces particulate emissions as it does not require a grinding methodology like low grades, which can produce particulates.

How is the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) market performing in regions?

Europe led the global refuse-derived fuel (RDF) market in 2021. Key nations like Germany, the U.K., France, and other nearby regional nations have experienced trade due to significant RDF manufacturers and the growing shift toward alternative fuel sources for energy generation. In addition, over the last three years, the amount of municipal solid waste in Europe has significantly increased. Governments emphasize adopting significant technologies to maintain waste production and use it sustainably. In addition, government agencies develop policies for using waste as secondary fuels to meet significant development. For example, in the United Kingdom, the Waste and Resource Action Program (WRAP) establishes guidelines for the classification and specification of secondary fuels, collectively known as waste-derived fuel (WDF), which also catalyzes regional market growth.

The Asia Pacific region is expected to witness the fastest growth in the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) market due to increased construction activity, which is driving demand for cement manufacturing, which is a major consumer of RDFs. In addition, construction and demolition waste processing, a significant waste source for RDFs, is also most likely to result from these activities. The enormous increase in demand for refuse-derived fuel in the region is primarily attributable to the industrial revolution. The tendency of people to use eco-friendly fuels as replacements for fossil fuels is another factor causing a significant change. The propensity of end-use industries to use refuse-derived fuels clears the way for refuse-derived fuel vendors in the regional countries.

What is the regulatory landscape for the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) market?

Municipal governments worldwide need help managing the endless waste loads from commercial sites and household combustible waste. Governments are utilizing RDF to manage and convert waste into energy to resolve these issues. The use of fuel derived from waste in many industries, particularly cement, is encouraged by governments worldwide. All over the world, governments are building their waste-to-energy facilities. Cement manufacturers focus on developing refuse-derived fuel plants from municipal solid waste to reduce landfill pressure. The need for a good alternative to conventional fossil fuels, such as fuel derived from waste, has been prompted by the energy-intensive nature of cement kiln production. Increased demand for coal and improved regulation of open burning are anticipated to drive industry growth in the coming years.

What is the market size of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) in terms of value?

The global market for refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is anticipated to grow at a substantial CAGR of 7.5% in the upcoming years. The global refuse-derived fuel (RDF) industry is estimated to be worth USD 3948.6 million in 2021 and is expected to be worth USD 6093.88 million by 2028.

What are the major players planning for the future of the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) market?

Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) producers and buyers intend to sign long-term agreements with distribution businesses to guarantee a steady fuel supply. The leading RDF producers also invest in increasing their production capacity to meet the growing demand. For instance, BMH Technology delivered a biomass fuel handling system to the Sappi Kirkniemi Mill in Finland in December 2021. The most recent refuse-derived fuel (RDF) handling system will guide the existing boiler toward current environmental goals, effectively eliminating the use of coal. The future fuel for the boiler will be made of biomass, specifically wood chips and tree bark.

Segmentation of Global Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) Market -

Global Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) Market – By Fuel Type

  • High Grade
  • Low Grade

Global Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) Market – By Application

  • Cement Kilns
  • Coal Power Plant
  • Combined Heat & Power Plant
  • Others

Global Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) Market – By Region

  • North America
    • US
    • Canada
  • Europe
    • Germany
    • France
    • UK.
    • Italy
    • Spain
    • Rest of Europe
  • Asia Pacific
    • China
    • Japan
    • India
    • South Korea
    • South-east Asia
    • Rest of Asia Pacific
  • Latin America
    • Brazil
    • Mexico
    • Rest of Latin America
  • Middle East & Africa
    • GCC Countries
    • South Africa
    • Rest of the Middle East and Africa

Frequently asked questions about the global refuse-derived fuel (RDF) market

The COVID-19 pandemic also negatively affected the global refuse-derived fuel (RDF) market, resulting in a 3.6% revenue decline in 2020 due to the shutdown of most end-use industries.

Europe accounted for the largest share in the global market for refuse-derived fuel (RDF).

The use of RDF to reduce CO2 emissions by various industry verticals has significantly fueled market growth. Increasing demand for RDF in waste-to-energy activities for electricity generation will drive global market expansion.

The high-grade segment had a major global market share in 2021.

The cement kilns segment had a major share in the global market.

Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) Market Scope

Report Attribute Details
Market Value in 2021 USD 3948.6 million
Market Value in 2028 USD 6093.88 million
CAGR 7.5%
Benchmarking Year 2021
Past data 2016 – 2021
Forecast period 2022 – 2028
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Published Date:  Dec 2022
Category:  Automotive & Transportation
Report ID:   60859
Report Format:   PDF
Pages:   120
Rating:    4.2 (40)
Delivery Time: 24 Hours to 48 Hours   
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